Thursday, March 17, 2011

PBS di Hong Kong

Sumber : wikipedia

The Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority (HKEAA) has recently moved from norm-referenced to standards-referenced assessment, including the incorporation of a substantial school-based summative oral assessment component (SBA) into the compulsory English language subject in the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE), a high-stakes examination for all Form 4–5 students (Davison, 2007).



Background

School-based Assessment (SBA) was first proposed in the Reform Proposals for the Education System in Hong Kong, published in September 2000. According to the proposal, the modes, content and the assessment methods of public examinations should be reviewed (p. 44). A “core-competence” approach, similar to criterion-referencing, will be adopted. In this approach, basic skills and knowledge required by a Form 5 graduate will be indicated and students do not have to compare with the others. Under the education reforms in which a new culture of learning and teaching is to be cultivated, schools can use different modes of broad-based assessments, including observation of students’ performance in classroom and participation in project work to promote learning in a more flexible manner. Another benefit is advocating students’ all-round development which gives a more comprehensive picture of individual students’ learning needs, as well as fosters the positive washback effects of public examinations. It also helps to address the limitations of judging students on their performance in one single examination.


Rationales

The rationales laid down by the SBA Consultancy Team (2005) for implementing SBA are as follows:
  • to continuously assess students in a pressure-free environment;
  • to reduce reliance on ‘one-off’ public oral examination;
  • to improve the reliability of oral English assessment;
  • to reflect the standard and ability of students;
  • to foster teaching and learning;
  • to promote students’ leisure reading and listening;
  • to reinforce learners’ autonomy and independent learning;
  • to facilitate “learning how to learn” by carrying out peer reviews and writing after a model in the assessment tasks and trainings;
  • to inform prospective employers and universities the level of students; and
  • to make Hong Kong’s examination system in line with the international model so that ‘assessment for learning’ is achieved; and
  • to empower teachers to make part of the assessment mechanism (p. 50) (LPATE, 2005).

Controversies

Using Brindley’s (1998)[10] framework, the SBA component is controversial in terms of political issues, to do with the purposes and intended use of the assessment; technical issues, primarily to do with validity and reliability; and practical issues, to do with the means by which the assessment was put into practice. These issues were gathered from key stakeholder groups, including teachers, students and education bureau officials.
Politically, in Davison’s (2007) words, “In fact, the SBA guidelines asked teachers to set their own time limits according to the needs of the students, but this was interpreted through the prism of teachers’ existing experience—many schools used buzzers and stopwatches to allocate an identical period of time to each students, with the result that in some schools students’ stress levels were high and their “performance” very contrived and/or rushed. As an outcome-oriented standards-referenced system, SBA is a significant cultural and attitudinal change, not only for teachers but for the whole school community, including students and parents. Hence, it is not surprising that fairness was a deep-seated sociocultural, not just political concern.”
Technically, many teachers and students are concerned over validity, reliability and fairness of the SBA component[3]. While teacher-educators and researchers view that SBA will enhance the validity and reliability of the HKCEE theoretically, some frontline teachers and students are skeptical on this.
As for practical issues, teachers raised such concerns as:
  • The need for access to appropriate assessment (and extensive reading) resources;
  • The need for activities and techniques as models/resources;
  • Concerns about the type of recordings of oral performance that they were expected to collect;
  • Lack of practical support for teachers at the school level;
  • Concerns about the adequacy of professional development in SBA;
  • Lack of time to implement and discuss assessments; and
  • Competing demands and priorities in relation to time allocation (Davison, 2007)


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